The report, Ethics & Governance of Artificial Intelligence for Health, which is the result of two years of consultations held by a panel of international experts appointed by WHO, further says: Whether AI can advance the interests of patients and communities depends on a collective effort to design and implement ethically defensible laws and policies and ethically designed AI technologies. There are also potential serious negative consequences if ethical principles and human rights obligations are not prioritized by those who fund, design, regulate or use AI technologies for health. AI's opportunities and challenges are thus inextricably linked."
To limit the risks and maximize the opportunities intrinsic to the use of AI for health, the WHO provides the following six principles as the basis for AI regulation and governance:
Protecting human autonomy: In the context of health care, this means that humans should remain in control of health-care systems and medical decisions; privacy and confidentiality should be protected, and patients must give valid informed consent through appropriate legal frameworks for data protection.
Promoting human well-being and safety and the public interest. The designers of AI technologies should satisfy regulatory requirements for safety, accuracy and efficacy for well-defined use cases or indications. Measures of quality control in practice and quality improvement in the use of AI must be available.
Ensuring transparency, explainability and intelligibility. Transparency requires that sufficient information be published or documented before the design or deployment of an AI technology. Such information must be easily accessible and facilitate meaningful public consultation and debate on how the technology is designed and how it should or should not be used.
Fostering responsibility and accountability. Although AI technologies perform specific tasks, it is the responsibility of stakeholders to ensure that they are used under appropriate conditions and by appropriately trained people. Effective mechanisms should be available for questioning and for redress for individuals and groups that are adversely affected by decisions based on algorithms.
Ensuring inclusiveness and equity. Inclusiveness requires that AI for health be designed to encourage the widest possible equitable use and access, irrespective of age, sex, gender, income, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, ability or other characteristics protected under human rights codes.
Promoting AI that is responsive and sustainable. Designers, developers and users should continuously and transparently assess AI applications during actual use to determine whether AI responds adequately and appropriately to expectations and requirements. AI systems should also be designed to minimize their environmental consequences and increase energy efficiency. Governments and companies should address anticipated disruptions in the workplace, including training for health-care workers to adapt to the use of AI systems, and potential job losses due to use of automated systems.
As the WHO notes: "AI for health has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although the pandemic is not a focus of this report, it has illustrated the opportunities and challenges associated with AI for health. Numerous new applications have emerged for responding to the pandemic, while other applications have been found to be ineffective. Several applications have raised ethical concerns in relation to surveillance, infringement on the rights of privacy and autonomy, health and social inequity and the conditions necessary for trust and legitimate uses of data-intensive applications."
"While the primary readership of this guidance document is ministries of health, it is also intended for other government agencies, ministries that will regulate AI, those who use AI technologies for health and entities that design and finance AI technologies for health."
The report importantly adds:
Implementation of this guidance will require collective action. Companies and governments should introduce AI technologies only to improve the human condition and not for objectives such as unwarranted surveillance or to increase the sale of unrelated commercial goods and services. Providers should demand appropriate technologies and use them to maximize both the promise of AI and clinicians' expertise. Patients, community organizations and civil society should be able to hold governments and companies to account, to participate in the design of technologies and rules, to develop new standards and approaches and to demand and seek transparency to meet their own needs as well as those of their communities and health systems.
Do you agree with the six principles as the basis for AI regulation and governance? What are you recommendations for how AI can be used for health?